Posts from — October 2012
Newsmaker: Philip J. Enquist
RECORD chats with SOM’s Partner in Charge of Urban Design and Planning about the firm’s master plan for the Great Lakes.
By Joseph G. Maty
October 25, 2012
The Great Lakes and surrounding environs could sink well below the definition of “great” if this unique but often abused region of North America is ignored. That is the informal warning issued by Vision for the Great Lakes & St. Lawrence Region, a master plan recently crafted by the Chicago office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM). Philip J. Enquist, leader of the firm’s global city design practice, spearheaded the project. For drafting the plan, he will receive the inaugural Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) Award for Excellence in Design, Planning & Sustainability at the organization’s gala on November 10.
The Vision “addresses the phenomenal increase in human population, the impacts of urbanization, and the threat of climate change to the largest fresh water lake system in the world,” cites Chicago-based SAH in the award announcement. Enquist says the Vision plan was inspired by the 100th anniversary of Daniel Burnham’s 1909 Plan of Chicago. What would a Burnham Plan for the 21st century look like? SOM’s team of planners identified a “family” of issues that command attention if the Great Lakes are to be protected and enhanced.
What inspired you to create this master plan?
I spend a tremendous amount of time with large-scale, complex problems, mostly dealing with emerging cities and global migration. On the flip side of that coin is the larger environment. Rather than putting boundaries or borders around urban areas, we sought to take a more holistic view of this unique geographic region and the challenges it faces in dealing with a myriad of issues that impact both human and natural health and wellbeing. The Great Lakes constitute 95,000 square miles of surface fresh water—20 percent of the world’s fresh water and the largest single collection of fresh water in the world, and more than 40 percent of the fresh water of North America. And yet we found there’s very little governing the protection or restoration—or future—of this amazing gift we’ve been given.
What did you learn from the process?
We wanted to understand what’s in place to protect this water, and what we could do as urban planners and designers to understand the issues facing us in this ecosystem, and what we can do in terms of guiding growth of urban areas and reducing the impact of man’s footprint, so we aren’t continuing to erode the quality of this resource. Just looking at the political boundaries, you can say no one’s in charge of this watershed. We came to a realization that agriculture is a real culprit. We’re putting nutrients and pesticides in the runoff going into the lakes, along with millions of gallons of raw sewage. There are issues with pharmaceutical wastes. And there are oceangoing ships loading iron ore from the Minnesota iron districts. These ships dump ballast water from all around the world, and this is a source of invasive species. We all know about the zebra mussels and quagga mussels and how they are taking over and competing with native fish. And then there is the Asian carp issue and the threat that they could get into the lakes.
What do you and SOM hope this ambitious plan may initiate or facilitate? What have you already seen in this regard?
If we can bring our countries (Canada and the U.S.) together and reduce waste dumped into our air and water, from fertilizer and salt runoff, coal power plants, ballast waters, sanitary sewers, pharmaceuticals, etc., we will ensure a cleaner environment and cleaner water for all future generations. The two countries have a global responsibility as stewards of one-fifth of the earth’s fresh surface water to protect this watershed. We are also seeing encouraging signs from mayors of cities along the Great Lakes, to rethink their city’s infrastructure systems, shift to renewable energy sources, close old coal power plants, introduce clean public transportation, and encourage water conservation measures. This century will prioritize the reengineering of our cities to put us in balance with nature.
What does SOM plan to do with the knowledge acquired from the development of this plan and its findings and recommendations? Is the firm spearheading any projects aimed at implementing these recommended initiatives?
Yes. We have taken our research on the Great Lakes and applied this to the South Works steel plant redevelopment site in Chicago. This is a 650-acre brownfield site that has been designed as a new urban neighborhood. Compact, transit-based and with a system that catches and returns to Lake Michigan 100% of the stormwater, it is the biggest reversal of a stormwater system planned in Chicago.
I also just recently led a Harvard Graduate School of Design studio on the Chicago River, to rethink how to clean up the river and engage this engineered water system into a better ecosystem for Chicago’s central city. The study has also affected and influenced our work in China (especially Beijing, a water-shortage region) and also our work in Saudi Arabia, to be smarter about using, recycling and capturing water.
October 26, 2012 Comments Off
The Regional Scale: The story at the regional scale begins with an understanding of how the introduction of humans and human systems impact the metabolic flows of energy, information, and matter within the vast natural ecosystems of the region. There are, of course, issues of habitat modification, resource over-consumption, and pollution, but at the regional scale these problems often become even more complicated because of the artificial barriers to information flows erected by humans in the form of geopolitical jurisdictional boundaries.
The Great Lakes watershed in North America provides a very good study of the complexities of the regional scale, covering more than 295,000 square miles, accommodating over 50 million people, supporting North America’s highest volume freight transport system, and hosting an aggregated economy that that is larger by GDP than those of all but 6 countries in the world. By volume, the Lakes contain approximately 4,500 cubic miles of water, accounting for 84% of the surface fresh water in North America and 21% of the global total.
The current challenge is related not so much to the human consumption of the water (only about 4.2% of the population’s drinking water comes from the Lakes), but rather the systemic treatment of the water and the aquatic ecosystems. The ecosystems are being impacted by modern agricultural practices, the introduction of invasive species, climate change, and processes of industrialization, commercialization, and urbanization that lead to the breakdown of the natural ecosystem flows. All of these processes ultimately lead to changes in the molecular constitution of the water, rendering it unable to perform critical metabolic functions and leading to cascading breakdowns of metabolic flows throughout the connected ecosystems.
October 4, 2012 Comments Off